1. The four main circular business models - rental, repair, resale and remaking

  • This can include revenue from direct purchase or subscription services, 
  • This can be delivered through several models e.g. customer-to-customer, business-to-customer, or business-to-business.

2. Income (revenue or return on investment) from a circular business model provider or platform.

For example, a company has bought a stake in a circular business model platform and receives a return on that investment. 

3. Training or education:

Empowering customers with the skills to keep fashion products in use e.g. repair workshops.

4. Where efforts on circular product design are coupled with a circular business model offering

This could include a premium that is applied to fulfil a lifetime repair guarantee on a product that has been designed to be physically and/or emotionally durable. This is not the entire product revenue. 

5. Revenue from non-physical products or services

Designing and developing non-physical, digital products and/or services that replace, enhance or complement users’ fashion needs and aspirations. These must displace the production of new physical products